Metrics details. However, there is a need to better understand the health system barriers as well as levers that influence progress. This review aims to bridge the information gaps on system-level barriers that currently impede the optimal delivery and uptake of immunization services to the children of Pakistan through the Expanded Program on Immunization EPI. We conducted a comprehensive literature review, using PubMed and Google Scholar to find peer-reviewed literature, and also reviewed EPI-related international and national reports. Additionally, we consulted government reports, surveys, and publications on the health system. Themes generated from the literature review included financing, governance, service delivery, human resources, information systems, and supplies and vaccines.
Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2014
Organization: Public Health Agency of Canada. Pertussis is an endemic and cyclical disease in Canada that disproportionally affects infants less than 1 year of age. Lack of maternal immunity is assumed to increase an infant's susceptibility to infection, both by increasing the risk of disease in mothers and subsequent transmission to the infant and by not providing sufficient passive protection through antibody transfer via the placenta or via breast milk. Since the last National Advisory Committee on Immunization NACI recommendations were published in , new evidence on the safety and effectiveness of Tdap administration in pregnancy has become available.
Executive summary: Literature review - Update on immunization in pregnancy with Tdap vaccine
The year marked the 40th anniversary of the World Health Organization's WHO Expanded Program on Immunization, which was established to ensure equitable access to routine immunization services 1. Coverage with the 3rd dose of DTP vaccine DTP3 by age 12 months is an indicator of immunization program performance because it reflects completion of the basic infant immunization schedule; coverage with other vaccines, including the 3rd dose of poliovirus vaccine polio3 ; the 1st dose of measles-containing vaccine MCV1 is also assessed. To reach and sustain high immunization coverage in all countries, adequate vaccine stock management and additional opportunities for immunization, such as through routine visits in the second year of life, are integral components to strengthening immunization programs and reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases.
Across Canada, publicly-funded immunization programs are provided for the routine administration of childhood vaccines against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, measles, mumps, rubella, and hepatitis B infections Footnote i. Each vaccine is administered according to provincial and territorial immunization schedules which vary slightly between jurisdictions. To monitor the protection of a population against vaccine preventable diseases, coverage is considered an important health indicator. It is a sensitive measure and can be used as a proxy measurement to evaluate health services, systems, and interventions Footnote ii Footnote iii.